Skip to main content

Full text of "Monthly performance report : Helio Thermics, Inc. - lot 6"

See other formats


• - / J 2 ~ 11 /0\ 



Ai^fDk. izft^l 



SOLAR/1025-79/01 



Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



HELIO THERMICS, INC. - LOT 6 
JANUARY 1979 









Fee j 4 isoo ] 






■ ' ' ' 




Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

HELIO-THERMICS, INC. 
HOUSE LOT 6 

JANUARY 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Hel io-Thermics Inc., House Lot 6 is one of two instrumented single-family 
residences in Greenville, South Carolina. The home has approximately 1086 
square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the 
home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system utilizes 
the attic space as the solar energy collector. The attic roof faces 10 degrees 
west of south and is pitched at an angle of 51 degrees from the horizontal . 
Solar energy enters the attic through a 41 6-square-foot aperture which is 
double-glazed with corrugated, translucent, fiberglass-reinforced, acrylic 
panels. The interior of the attic is painted black to maximize the absorption 
of solar energy. Warm air accumulates in the peak of the attic roof and 
circulates through the conditioned space or through storage by an air handler. 
Solar energy is stored in an 870-cubic-foot storage bin containing 85,460 
pounds of crushed rock. The bin is located under the house and is insulated 
with 2-inch polystyrene insulation. Cold water is preheated in the attic by 
thermosiphoning water from the 80-gallon preheat tank through a manifold 
system of copper tubes. These tubes are attached to black sheet-metal plates, 
thus enhancing absorption of solar radiation for preheating the water as it 
circulates to and from the preheat tank. Preheated city water is stored in 
the preheat tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 80-gallon DHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
water-to-air heat exchanger in the hot air supply-duct provides auxiliary 
energy for space heating. A gas-fired water heater provides auxiliary energy 
for the water-to-air heat exchanger and DHW. The system, shown schematically 
in Figure 1, has seven modes of operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is no demand 
for space heating and the collector supply-duct temperature is 26°F higher 
than the storage temperature. This mode terminates when the temperature 
difference between the collector and storage is less than 16°F. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when space heating is 
required (but is not available from the collector) and the storage tempera- 
ture exceeds the building ambient temperature by 5°F. This mode terminates 
when the building ambient temperature equals the storage temperature or when 
space heating is no longer required. 

Mode 3 - Col lector - to- Spju e Heating ; This mode activates when space heating 
is required and the collector supply-duct air temperature is 10 I higher than 
the building ambient air temperature. This mode terminates when the tempera- 
ture difference drops to less than 6"F or the space heating requirement is 
satisfied. 

Mode 4 - A uxi 1 iary Energy- to-Space Heating : Tin's mode activates when space 
heating is required and thermal energy Is not available from the collectors 

or storage. An electrical heating element in the hot air supply-duct remains 
on until the space heating demand is satisfied. 







■WOr 



; \\\\\\\\\\\\\v 



jsgssssggsssssS 




Co 

1 

B 

to 

^. 

CO 

£ 
5 

""* 

■«j 
Co 

CO 

co" 



CO 



S3 
1 



5: 



I 



Mode 5 - Summer Mode, Passive Cooling Storage : This mode can be activated 
when the residents wish to store cool air in storage for circulation the next 
day. The air-handler fan activates and an outside air-intake damper opens to 
allow the cool air to circulate through the attic and storage. 

Mode 6 - Summer Mode, Space Cooling : This mode can be activated when cool 
air from storage is desired in the living area. The outside air-intake 
damper closes, the duct to the living area opens, and the air-handler fan 
activates. 

Mode 7 - DHW Preheating : This mode activates when there is a demand for hot 
water. Water is drawn from the conventional DHW tank and replenished with 
heated water from the preheat tank. The DHW subsystem has this one independent 
mode of operation for preheating. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in January and the solar energy system operated con- 
tinuously during the month. The solar energy system provided a fossil fuel 
energy savings of 1.7 million Btu. 

Several one-time anomalies which occurred in the beginning of January were 
corrected during a Boeing engineering site visit on January 9 and 10. The 
data for January 11 through January 31 was used and then extrapolated to 
reflect a full month's data. The space heating load and the auxiliary fossil 
fuel energy for the DHW and space heating subsystems could not be determined 
because of an unreliable gas totalizer. There was no solar energy contri- 
bution to the DHW subsystem in January beca.use the hot water thermosiphoning 
system had been drained. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 16.8 
million Btu for a daily average of 1305 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
January of 1784 Btu per square foot for a south-facirg plane with a tilt of 51 
degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperatu 1 e during January was 
37°F as compared with the long-term average for January o' 42°F. The number 
of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 868, as 
compared with the long-term average of 704. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation .on the collector array for the 
month of January was 16.8 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 



was operating, the total insolation amounted to 12.7 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of January was 3.6 million Btu, result- 
ing in a collector array efficiency of 21 percent, based on total incident 
insolation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 
2.8 million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.24 
mil 1 ion Btu. 

S torage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 2.8 million Btu. There were 
0.55 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. 
Energy loss from storage was 2.2 million Btu. This loss represented 79 per- 
cent of the energy delivered to storage. This "lost" energy is probably 
infiltrating the living space and thus reducing the auxiliary thermal require- 
ments. This supposition cannot be arithmetically substantiated for January 
because the calculated actual space heating load is not available. The 
average storage temperature for the month was 64°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW load was 2.3 million Btu. Since there was no solar energy 
contribution the load was satisfied by auxiliary fossil fuel energy (although 
it could not be calculated because of the gas totalizer problem). The thermo- 
siphoning subsystem in the attic has been drained until warm weather. A 
daily average of 81 gallons of DHW was consumed at an average temperature of 
148°F delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem total load could not be calcu- 
lated because the gas totalizer, which measures the gas consumption, was not 
providing reliable data during January. A total of 1.0 million Btu of solar 
energy was consumed as space heat, 0.55 million Btu delivered from storage 
and the balance direct from the collector. The space heating subsystem con- 
sumed a total of 0.65 million Btu of operating energy which is not considered 
to be a solar energy system expense. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The site visit by Boeing and IBM engineers on January 10 and 11 resulted in 
the correction of several problems. In addition, a gas totalizer was installed 
to provide a more positive indication of gas consumption. There is still a 
problem with the instrumentation of this totalizer and also with the instrumen- 
tation of a water flowmeter in the auxiliary space heating subsystem. This 
prevents the computation of the space heating load and also the auxiliary 
fossil fuel energy contriubtion in the DHW and space heating subsystems. The 
hot water thermosi phoning subsystem has been drained until all danger of 
freezing has past. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total fossil fuel energy savings of 1.7 
million Btu; this savings was provided entirely by the space heating subsystem. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

A site visit by IBM and Boeing is scheduled for early February. The remaining 
instrumentation anomalies will be investigated at that time. 



S 

< 
a. 
o 
o 
a 
a 

z 
o 

tori 

I- 
< 
a 

k- 
V) 

z 

G 

s 
in 

Q 

z 

_l 

O 
O 
u 

O 

Z 

z 



< 

UJ 

I 

fY 

< 

_» 
o 
CO 



a>- 
oa 
a< 
us 
as 

3 
>C0 
-J 

XUJ 
kH 
Zm 

ow 

s 



o 

(* 

in 

(VJ 

o 

a 

< 
J 
o 
co 



u 
co 



UJ 

_i 

> 
z 

UJ 
UJ 
a 
<J) 



»0 



O 

-It* 
N 

•L> 

z • 

►"•>- 

a 

-< 

C03 

uz 
►1< 

?.-> 

a 

UJ .. 
ID 
hO 

o>- 

Htt 

-JUJ 

wa 
I 

k- 
••a 

UJO 

i-a 

t-LU 



> 
i o 
via 

U! LU 
5Z 
OUJ 
C O 

Jh 
Q< 

z^a 
<a o 

LU 

Zk< 
i- o 

k- *_l 
<s 

UJUJUJ 

IHI 
COk 
LU> 
U(/)0 
<CDk- 

a3 

C0C0CJ 
t-t 
COCVk- 
LUZk- 
Qi-i< 
t-k- 
><UJ 
OUJl 

aik- 
a 

UJS 

suo 

uj<a 

kQ.ll. 
1/">C0 
> Z 
COUJO 

C3 < 

KZJ 
UJ ►"• 3 

z u 

lb »a 

lp»-* 

azu 

«i ** 
•• Jh-a 

ZO<M 

o colu< 

<-> i 

k- COUj >- 

a u am 

»-< l-H Q. 

as o 

uaaiu 
couiiua 
ujTk-a 
Ok- <uj 
axu. 

S t~ CO 
W.Jk-Z 
k-LuG< 

vina 

>- k- 

COUJU 

UJk-k-«- 



CO 



> 

CO 
< 

a * 
UJ z> 

k- <C0 
<Ch 

xz co 
<k-s 

k- <UJ 
OZUJK 
IDIV) 
ZUJ> 
UhQII/) 
f S 0. UJ 
k-3 3 

co_j »co 

UJ<_J 

s < i 

GkOk- 

OlL O 

otc 

UJ »Q0 

IO o 
HWZh 

< 
zo o 

•-N OUJ 
k-O 

< t-l 

• D> 

zsluc 
cd a a a 

U.U 

UJ U-CO 
k-OC0«-i 

ujujz 

uuao 
zuik- a • 

0_J LUa 

UJCZW 
OZUJ \~ 

ou< < 

UJ >- UJ 

t-coua i 
<>-►-•< 
j H^a 

3>k-_|LU 

0"lO<Mh 

za x< 

»-tUJUJ3* 

Zl< 
ZUJk- 10 
< < 

a z »e> 

Z<mO 
•-._) Z-l 
ouj>-.< 

ywjzn 
O cos 

o»oih 
a5<D.< 

LU OhZ 
OK CO 

lu co or o z 

I>WSO 

3ccaujs 

aoOIO 
UI/1UHU 



3 r> 
k- »k- • 

CC k- CD I- u. u_ 
U LL 

z • z »co co 

OOOOUJUJ 

•— tP «(/"; Ul UJ 

j\j\aa 

JDJDOO 
t-t k- t-< I— ti i UJ 

JmJmoo 



CG 



Z>3 
k-k 

aj cd 

zz 

oo 

ft »- 

_I_J 



^ SS 



n«- , <J-oNoo*o^or r )oo 
c^<ta^nvOoroooN 
co «*• ir> v£ • cvj oo <■ 

• O • CO o • • • 

>c •* to o o •* 



>- 
O 
a 

UJ 

z 

UJ 

• • 

<a 
t-< 
<_i 
ca 

Lb 

»-■ z 

o 

_J- 
<u 
orz 

iu»-< 

z 

UJ 



>- 

L? 

a 

UJ 

z 

Lu 



C 

UJ 

U 
UJ 

J 

o 
u 



a k 

< z 

_J LU 

C « 

^ CO 



>- 
u 

z 

UJ 

cu 

HlL 

<u_ 

Q.LU 
UJ 

az> 
soe: 
uj --a. 

kWU 

az 

OLUu. 

z> 

"ZC 

ooz 

JUh 

»-< k- 

co<a 

-JUJ 

ujoa 

O(0O 

< 
or </)io 

UJWW 

>uu 

<UJU! 



> 
a 

UJ 

z 

UJ 

e> 

ZG 
•-• LU 
1-2 
< D 
a. co 

UJZ 

ao 
ou 

s >• 

UJO 

(-or 

COLU 

>-z 

tOLU 

_IJ 
<< 

oo 



Z) D 

m m 

Zk-Z 

JOZO 
< «- LU i-i 
k- _|U_I 

o _ia_i 

k- t-tUJt-i 

Z 

U;* *ro 

k- O 

W O 



3->Z> 
k-l-k- 

CD CDm 

7ZZ 

ooo 

"Mm 
_l_l_l 

JJJ 



->33 
k-k-k- 
CDCD CD 

7ZZ 

nOo 
• — i _i 



J^ijZi 



oo < 

co • 



CO no 



o# cvi 

O N 

• • 

o •* 



o 



z<<<<<<<<< 

JZZZZZZZZZ 

o 
o 
u 



o *• * n s *. 
z o^ 

OvO 



k- 
< 

UJ 

I 



•o 



•*• * cvj 

• vC 
z • 



Lt — *0 •# •* »0 

UJ v£i C< < < O 

k- 0J o • • • o 

< • • Z Z ,£. • 

3*C\J o o 



o 

I 



>- 
< 

3 
CO 

Uj 

CO 

> 
CO 
CD 
3 
CO 



o 

UJ> 
COO 

Z3cr 
o UJ 

»->-z 
k-oui 
ua 

<UJo 

azz 
ilujm 

aa< 
o< <or 

< J-JUJ 

oooa 

_|C0C0O 



> 

o_j 

otuj 

ZU.UJ 
UJ 3 

uu 
< a i 

V k-t- 

ccuco 

UJUJCO 

IJO 
k- LU Lu 



CO 

z 

>w 

< c? 
coz 
►— 
J> 
<< 

(J CO 

a j 



• • .uco 

X XXUJCO 
r)3D_JO 
<<rflDU- 



Cl 
O 

k- 

u 
< 

u. 

Ul 

u 
z 
< 

y 

LL 
O 

LL 

a 

UJ 

a 



LU 

CO 

>- 
CO 



< 

< 
o 

Ul 

_J 

< 

-J 

< 

> 
< 

z 

3 

CO 
UJ 

k- 

o 

z 

LJ 
O 



< 

G 

UJ 
J 

< 

*-« 

_J 
<a 
k- a 
<< 

G 

k- 
JG 
_JZ 

3 

zco 

UJ 

cok- 
u;c 
k-z 

OUJ 

zo 

UJ 
o • 

< 



* raz 



oo 
s 



h-ao 
ac\j 
o 
q> 

a< 

3 
U.'(X 

uo 

Z'JJ 

<u, 

as 
o< 
u.a 
ao 

LUC 

aa 
a 

>- 

_j< 
ik 
k < 
zo 
o 

za 
< 

LUJ 
IO 
h CO 
00 

CJ- 

k <s 

zee 

UJON 
Oh I 
•— ' k <t 
3<C 
OZC 

o 

COUJN 

- ia 

Kk < 
UJ _l 
t^U. c 
3OC0 



LU 
U 

z 

LU 

a 

UJ 

u. 
u.i 
a 







«-i 




00 


00 




00 00 00 




oo ooooooooootnoo 














o 




UJ 


UJ 




UJUJUi 




Ul U.' UJ UJ UJ UJ UJ u. 














V 




J 


_J 


UG 


i i i 




_i — i i — i i i i i 














0* 




D . 


>"5 


• 


DOS 




D 3D3 3-00 














N 




OS 


n 


5- 00 00 


nOo 




nhoooocon 














1 




-> « 


i -» 


• UiUJ 


-)T) 


J 


1 Z ">"^ ">->->-) -} 














in 




c 


I 


CT Ul UJ 




< 


UJ 














CM 




<oo < oo a: a. 


< << 


Y-<U<<<<t<<< 














o 




WK<J\.W 


GGG 


GUXX&OV&OW 














.i 




— "J 


i *-> 


"^UIUJ 


nhh 


v~ 


•— iUJ«—i'— '•—••— '•"■i— •—• 














V 

a 

< 




Gy 


Gy OO 


GGG 


UJ 


U)Q-\.r>(DOO&W 














>- > 


0M^ 


cvjmno>oc>c^ir) 


**C0CJ«- •O*'* 














_j 


1 G CD 


<* ■* o* 


h oj o<t nc\j 


>- 


ir>ro < o *o 














o 


ooa < 


NWS 


F-« 


♦ N(^^ 


00 


o^ • a N 














00 


UJUJ (X *. 


• a 


i • i 


or 


o • • • 


> 


• • z • • 
















2 Z IU Z > 


Ninrno> 


oo^ 


00 


— o o — 
















am h <u 


*-<tf 


























c o < o t- 




























JhJZ oo 




























o< <k z 




























zsai- <tu 






















— 






•f i!!j G Z UJ 1— 






















«r 






W IDIi/) 






















a. 






UIO z w > 




















• 


g 






Zh<UHaM 










G 










00 


o 






— O f 1 1 1 CD 










Z<<rf<<<<<< 








N 


<r 






h'Jl-3 3 










►-< 


• •••••••• 








a 


CL 






< Z 00 _| • (.0 










jzzzzzzzzz 








t-< 








UJ UJ UJ LJ < j 










o 










» 


z 






rt-is < i 










o 










HO. 


o 






wt- ahOf- 










G 










a cj 


*-* 






W>- Ob_ D 




















o 


\- 






UOO OCD 




















a> 


< 






< CD H UJ • OD 




















ujor 


a. 






CD :o G 




















a< 


K 






WWUI-(/IZt- 




















D 


00 






IX < 




















UJCX 


Z 






V) U> H Z O O 




















GCD 


O 


K 




uj ^ h »— r» o uj 










G* 


* 






ZUJ 


z 


ct> 


G 


G — < HO 










Z 


incc < vo 








<|L 


u 


do- 


00 


M|- < «-l 










►-< 


OO • N 








s: ► 


o 


ck 

WZ 


» 


><UJ • D> 
Ow I Z^UJG 










< 


• • z • 








az 
o< 


g 


as 


111 


a ik — oo: or 










UJ 










U.CT 


z 


D 


J 


o. coatta 










I 










CG 


»-i 


>00 


J 


LiZ u. UJ 




















U-G 


J 


J 


i— < 


JUOUJ U.O0 




















aa 


o 


IW 


> 


uj < ir h c oo — 




















a 


o 


Ht- 


z 


h a U- wu. z 




















> 


u 


Z»- 


w 


0000 VL\-<> 

> z uuao 




















_j< 
Ik 


D 


2 


a 


oo uj o z uj h a • 








>- 












H < 






<j 


I •- G _i uj o: 








G 












ZO 


< 






>H»- UjQZli) 








z 












o 






P 


G < OZujk 








UJ >- 


cruo*o •* •# »o 






< 


za 


G 




vO 


azjQu< < 






UJ 


>- G 


UJ oc o< < < o 






1- 


< 


z 






UJ — O UJ > UJ 






waG a 


t- ro o • • • o 






< 


UJ J 


— 




H 


Z UHKUal 






a d 


>- UJ 


< 


• z z Z • 






o 


IG 


H 




O 


UJ • C£ < — — < 






DkU. 7 


X OJ O o 








H00 


< 




-JO 


g — i hmq: 
u. zg 5>h _iuj 






h <U. UJ 








< 


UJ 


00 


uj 




N 






< a uj 


h 




M 


H 


_J 


OJ- 


I 




• cr- 


< — CO G < — H 




>- 


BUI 


G 


c 




a 


< 


0J 


t- < s 






g- 


•• Jl- H ZQ X< 


V 


G 


u.a 


z>- zo 


I 




c 


c 


< 


ZC0 


OT 




z • 


ZO<— .-.UIOJOX 


G 


a 


a £ 


OOmU 






h 




G 


UJCJf^ 


< 




->- 


UoOUJ< ZI< 


a 


w 


ZUJ 


«-D H Z 






G 


u. 


►-" 


Ph 1 


-I 




a 


m I ZUJH 00 


UJ 


z 


UjK 


00 UO 




_) 00 


< 


J 


_l 


-K <* 


o 




• < 


HOOUJ >- < < 


z 


u; 


y- 


cr zaoo 




O UJ G 


U. 


oj <a 


D< O 


V) 




WD 


auam a z »g 


UJ 




GUJ UJUJ Z 




UJ>- G D J Z 




< t-a 


GZ O 






uz 


hhQ. Z < — G 


• • 


a 


t- Z > Q.O 


• • 


OOG Z U. LU "- 1 


UJ 


_j << 


o 






— < 


crz o -_i z _J 


<or 


< 


z - 


ZGOU 


>- 


z oa uj d> oo 


G 


*- 


o 


OOUJS. 






z~> 


Gtrcruj oui — < 


H< 


_j 


UJQGZ 


a 


O Uj GU, < G 


Z 


< 


y- 


.IE 






ff 


oouiujor *oo_jz or 


<_j 


o 


MjUt-J>- 


< 


•-» V Z _l ►-" oo Z 


< 


>_lO 


a v- < 






LL)«« 


UJ T k- 0.' u ftD3 


no 


00 


CD >-• 


V- UJ 10 


y 


u. o in < nr i ►- 


y 


< 


lZ 


UJ -J 






TO 


oh<uj a »oi»- 


00 




z Dor<(-or 


5 


ua 5 K --_i> 


a 


z 3 


iru, c 






ho 


o»u.c£?:<ri< 


UJ 


o 


< m< 


D 


<UJGaG00<< 


o 


~ 


zoo 


DO00 






o~ 


z « v uj a — z 


KK 


Ul 




-JUJV z 


00 


azzujujooGoo 


u. 




UJ 








•-a 


UJ_Jh Z Qh 00 


-Z 


y 


UJUJ OQ-00UJ 




U. UJ— I JO 1 - 


a 


00 00 k 


t • 






juj 


i — uj c < into a o z 


00 UJ 


G 


G GOOO 


Z 


hKuita j 


UJ 


UJuiG 


UJ 






ujq. 


concr i>ilz o 


o 


Ul 


<< 


JJ 


UJ 


a or < h »- 


a 


K K ^ 


z" 






i 


>- k oooo Q. cr z 


_J- 


_l 


cr a oo oo < < 


H 


o<<a • • »u o" 




C OUJ 






H 


tOUlU DCDQ.UJZ 


<u 


_J 


UJUJ oooo y. y- 


00 


< _J _IUJ X X X UJ oo 


z 


z zo 








••a 


si— oo cr doio 


az 


o 


> > GuOO 


> 


OoOaDDOJD 


UJ 


Ul 


Ul 


a 






wo 


UJH t-wUWU^U 


Ult- 


u 


< < u. 


00 


_ioooon<<<uju. 


V- 


o 


rs • 


UJ 






HO. 


h 


z 








OD 




00 




< 


u. 






— UJ 


kx 


UJ 








D 




V 




• 


UJ 






wa 


00 


G 








00 




00 


* 


>dz 


Q 



o 

V 

o* 

N 
I 

in 

CO 

o 

«•* 
V 

or 
< 

o 
in 



s. 






< 


«»» 




a. 


in 




19 


V) 




o 


u 




a 


UJ 




a 


\* 




z 


2 




o 


UJ 




»-l 


H 




H 


tn 




< 


> 




oc 


V) 




H 


CD 




(/) 


D 




z 


I/) 




D 


H 




T 


a uj 




UJ 


ou> 




O 


IDII 




(J 


ao 




Z 


H 


u 


»-« 


>V) 


I/) 


_l 


J 




o 


IO 


p 


o 


HZ 


UJ 


u 


Z< 


J 




o 


_J 


o 


sz 


t— 1 


z 


o 


> 


< 


M 


z 




H 


UJ 


(J 


u 


UJ 


z 


UJ 


a 


»-" 


-I 


<j 


H 


_l 




< 


o 


» 


u 


u 


*0 


X 








> 


H 


a 


o 


O 


< 


a 


JC^ 


_i 


UJ 


N 


G 


z 


• a> 


(0 


UJ 


z - 

• < 

uz 
£-> 

a 
UJ •• 

IO 
HO 

o*~ 
•-a 

-JUI 

i 

H 

••a 

UJO 

na 

t-UJ 

wo: 



orzy 
< ou 

_J~Z 
O WW 

U)U 

(/)>•-' 

</)ZlL 
UOU. 

ujuuj 



OZ 
>UJO 
lOOHi-O 

waujh 

UUJUJ_JCD 
UJZ-5~ 

ujujs: 



z>z 

(/ihq:hd 

<J<UJ JH 

UlttZJCD 
UJUJ*- 1 

O 



-JWZ 

<(rtO 
X2UhD 
OaUJ_|H 
<UJ JCD 

IOH 



> z 

O i/)0 

UJH<_IH 
Z O JO 
UJ _!•-< 

s 



H 
Z 
UJC. 

•-2 

CCLL, 
2H 
< 



IL 

I 

UJ 

o 



z >-z 

uj a o o 

0<an3 

•H JUJ Jh 

UOZJ1D 

zwuj.-< 

w- 2: 



I 
> H 
<U-Z 

ooo 



#*»#**#»#»c\jNOj\0^vCcr).i*noooaif)inrocvjr r )u,inaDo i i o 

0^«- , o<J- v nH(\ic\joa>oojr r )<tf r )r r )COroNifiNl I I vo 

o k o oo o ooco cm oo o Ooo ro ooo o l lo 

OoOOoOoOO^OOOOoOOOOOO 



ZOH <Q0-_J-<LJ<C3JUJ 



ooo»- , »-«'-'»-i«"" , ooo-«»HOr*«- i o^«-«- < ~* I ro i o 

0O0OOOOO0OOOOOOOOOOOO I CM I o 



OOOOOOOOqOooOOOOOOOOO 



o 



cm 

o 

o 



ZOH <Q.a_)MU<CD_j , JJ 



mcvjoi , otf'u^^NoocMCM«-"CM J<tr r )vC'si'0 I o i ro 
0O0000000000O00000000 I O I o 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



**#-»-jf*-»*.«#vo«*oc^N\o- < a'ni*OG>ro*oir>cMii-)Nvo^voc^ 
ro r) -st ro cm m in <* ro ro ro ro n ro n ro m ro n ro m 



ro 



ro 



< 

H 
< 

O 



H 
< 
O 

UJ 
J 
CD 
< 
U 



***#*#####OToororotr)mmcMcjomOcoco<frneoo.^ocvj I ro I ro 
< *c\j^o*cMn<i-a>c^o v o<tir^-toroomrofM»o i cm I <t 

moOvONNvOvDOOCMNvO<tCOS-«OOCOCOOO l oo i in 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



vO 



o 
o 

o 



'CMro^-m>DNcc(^o«- , cMro<tmvoNoo0^o^cMro<tin\ONooaorH 

^•-•^.•-^.-•-♦.-•.-■•-'CMCMCMCMfMCMCMCMCMCMrOrO 



2 

o 
to 



> 
< 



in 

CD 

z 



Ul J 

_j »a 
cD<:a 

<H< 
_J< 

< o 

> JZ 

<_J 

Z3V) 

ozui 

H 
10 too 
uiwz 

HHUJ 
OOO 

zz 

UJUJ • 

oo< 

* OZ 







o 






V 






rr. 






h- 






ir- 






r\j 






o 


7 




i"» 


< 




•v 


tt. 




ir 


O 




< 


O 




_i 


d 




t_l 


a 




10 


z 






o 






»-« 




u 


K 


a' 


to 


< 


u 




a 


z 


» 


K 


< 


UJ 


(0 


z 


J 


Z 


a 


_l 


u 


t-o 


H-t 


2 


oru 


> 


UJ 


oa 


z 


o 


auj 


UJ 




uja. 


UJ 


o 


tt 


a 


z 


> 


o 


»■* 


>< 




J 


ja 


•> 


u 


ra 


vO 


u 


H< 




u 


Z 


K 




Qui 


u 


o 


£U 


JO 1 


z 


»- 


N 


< 


U 


.0* 




lii 


U- 


o 


J 


z • 


z 


J 


~> 


H4 


o 


a. 


h 


u 


'< 


< 




10 3 


HI 




uz 


I 




5. "> 


a 




a 


< 




in •• 


_J 




TO 


o 




»-o 


to 




— a 

UJ 0. 

I 

V- 

• • rr 

UIO 

t-a 
•— tu 
toa 



> 
or u 
o>z 

K<UJ 
UGC- 

uja u 
_j< i-i 
_i u. 
c u. 

U UJ 



Ul> 

JZ U. 

i-iuja 

>- CEUilU 
Q< 



O 

UJ > z 

U < CCi-< 3 
U) _JUJ_|»-- 
_JCZ_|CC 
_|t/)U-ii-« 
O 2 

u 




z >-z 

lu a (jo 

•"•-JUI 1^ 
UOZ_)QJ 
Z t/> UJ •— 



I 

<U. 7 
OOG 



**#********ifiovo<r, acj>c\juiNisiN.-«c\ioir>cj'.s}oco 
>-'Oo-i(\J'vjtMrvjcoo»"C\jooj' , '/0»- , (\j(\i<\i 

000O000000000000000O0 
I I I 



o 



o 
o 



**********onctj<Oc>a>oc}>ir)r, cvj^r^^^oc^^cco 



tf 
<* 



00OO(\Jf. SiOoCCOWSr-N^C^O^cC I 0~ 
OOOHHHr<MOOO' H HOHMOrt0y(\lH | lh 



vC 



o 
o 



OOoOOOOoOOOOCOOOOOoOO 

I I I 



r, 



******* 



<)OO<t^Oi;)(]0OO'-'CM00 , ^WO-nCN^ | tf 
PloOUl\0\t^ijjOOO^li'rtinCONii)^s I N 



OoOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOqOOo 



C\j 



o 



< 

< 

c 

UJ 



< 

< 

a 

Ul 
.1 

a 
< 



******#***ooconroir, irr';rjcvcMr)acocc<tnooo-'cr\j i ro i m 
<<\i<ta>0"ui<j-a'C^c v vu^-in'-'onioir/r r '<NJ>i) i t\j i <* 
uooovONf^vOveooojNvG^ccf^^ccoccDco i co i tr 

OOOOC'OOOOOOOOOoOOOOOO 



o 
o 

c 



ifvjro«*m»ONcO(ro — cjr r )<tir)vOf-oo(7 , o — (\jn<JinONCD(j<o-« 
— -«r-.-<-N'-'^i^-< — ^-<(\jfvrvjroc\jf\j(\jt\jr\jrjrnro 



3: 
-» 
to 



< 



to 

tr 

z 



j 
-J .c 
0D< Q. 
< H < 
_J< 

< o 

> |Z 

^ _> in 

DZ UJ 

to toe 

. 

l-t-DJ 

ooo 

* fOZ 







O 






V 






o 






s 






1 

in 






CM 






o 






«-« 


£ 




V 


< 




or 


a. 




< 


o 




_i 


o 




o 


or 




</) 


a. 






z 






o 




u 


l-< 




CO 


H 






< 




• 


a. 


UJ 


It 


K 


V 


_l 


01 


z 


_) 


z 


K< 


H-" 


o 


trz 


> 


s: 


oa 


Z 


LU 


ao 


UJ 


a 


UL!Li_ 


UJ 




era 


5 


<3 


UJ 


z 


ya 




•-• 


J 


» 


J 


i 


vO 


o 


HUJ 




a 


ZO 


\- 


u 


0«r 


n 




la 


..|0» 





c 


N 


z 


H 


• a 


< 


C0 


z • 


o 




«-«>- 


z 




a 


*« 




► < 


H 




003 


< 




uz 


to 




•-< 


I 






a. 




UJ •• 


< 




ID 


J 




v-o 


o 




o^ 


01 




-Jiu 
ma 

i 

••or. 

UJo 

»-a 
•-in 
i/) or. 



V 
WU 
15Z 
<UJ 

a<-i 

(/)IL 

u. 

UJ 



IDUJ 

oo u. 
< <o_ 
orcrzo 

OUJUJUI 
H>KO 
00< 



o 
ww>z 

15QHJO 
ZOanD 
< h-UJ JK 
ICOZ JtD 
U UJ »-* 

z s 



UJZ 

aoa jh 
ua o _ico 

ZlLI-H 
UJ WE 



>■ UIZ 

c oo 
o:o<hd 
idh a JK 

Z O-ICD 
UJ »-•- 
OOE 



X 

> \- 
<u.z 
ooo 

E 



*##******#in<*ocooN.-4voow«tvoco^voN<\Jo^sir) 
cvjoo*oo» — oo — '!tcjinc\jro<j-(Miosvcoino' 
^^ooJror^NN^vO — (M^oj^acvjrorocvj 

oa^oooooiooNoonoOvooooo 
i l i 



o 

CM 



CO 

o 



***#«-#**##m<jn-*<tmvo-*N<f-ncvjronnmn-*<f , 5J-vO 

\0*0*0v0*0*0v0r-\0«G*0\0v0\0v0^0v0vi;v0>0O 



vO 



ONOh t-<Oin(MnCMCM^.-«CMCMv00CCM«-<r0O | -i | O 
OOOOOoOOt-<OOOOOoOOOOoO I O I o 

ooooooooooooooooooooo 

III III I I I 



CM 

o 

CM 

a 



r/»-»«- , -<r^r0'-«-iSc<j-o»-'OOCMCMC>r r )cMm I <}- 
ooooooooooooooooo°ooo I If) 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 
I I I I I 



00 

•-« 

o 
o 



o 

CM 

o 



< 



< 

< 
o 

UJ 

J 

CD 

< 
u 



■&*####*#*#*oooinNvOvO\OooovooN^oomcoc7 N irf I in i o 
lOocO'CMCMrninoooocMonooo-H^-vOvc i in i co 

0000«-«»-<«-'<-h OOo~" l *" < 0»-<^ -, Ot-»»H"*»-H I N j o 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 

I 



CM 



o 
o 

CM 

o 



, cMro^invONooo>o^4CMro<tinv£)NccO N o--.cMrn<tinvDr , -co(>o^-' 

^^.^.^^^.^^i^i^CMfMCMCMCMCMcMCMCMCMnr) 



E 
CO 



> 
< 



a 



CO 

CD 

Z 



UJ J 

-J »a 

CD<0- 

J< 
< o 

>JZ 

z5co 

DZUJ 

00 COO 
UJWZ 
KKUJ 

ooo 
zz 

UJUJ • 
*C9Z 



10 



o 

CT> 
N 

I 

ir 
o 

a. 

< 
_i 
o 

m 



2 






< 






a. 






o 






o 






01 






a 






z 






c 






►-< 






»- 






< 






a. 


z 




»- 


Hi 




0"/ 


H 




z 


HCO 




o 


ct>- 




5 


OC0 




Ui 


CD 




c 


UO 




o 






4- 


>-cr 




*-* 


-JUj 




-I 


XK 




u 


H< 




o 


Z* 


U 


u 


2h 


CO 


Q 


O 


» 


z 


I 


UJ 


< 




_J 


o 




• — • 


z 




> 


•-1 




Z 


»- 




111 


< 




UJ 


Ul 




a 


I 




13 


a 




B 


< 




vO 


j 






o 




H 


to 




O 

_JO 
N 

• C* 

« ) v* 

•7 • 

a. 

• < 

COD 
UZ 

or 
UJ •• 

IQ 
HO 

o»- 
•-a 

da 

i 

H 

• •a 

UJ o 

>- a 

I-* UJ 

coct 



aro 

t-ll-UJ 
Cl- CO 
KD 

2 



•ft 
(-H2 

o<ujuj U. 

IJhO 



• •0. 

r>< uj uj u. 



_J>-C0Z 
i-OOO 

wctzmd 

CO Ui •-• Jh 

oz> _Jm 

u. UJ<»-» 



>-C0 z 

kOOO 

uazno 

UJ U-' .-■ _J H 

_iz>_ico 

UjUJ<'-t 

coz 



_i z 

HJO 

XC0UJ-. z> 

DtOD Jh 

<OLU_|CD 

U. .-. 

z 



z 

hJO 
XUUJ»-0 
DLUD_Jt- 
< Jll _|C0 

UJ •-. 

Z 



J Z 

<oo 

XZUJ»~D 

<UJD JCD 

y- z 



>- 
a o 
uj a. 
a u.j 
oz 

UJ 



z 
o 

_l CD 



> Z 

aooo 
< or. ujm ^ 
_j uj co _j »- 

OZ T> _J(T 
COUJ •- 

z 



an 

<oaa k 
_i »<UJZ 
ooroaui 
cou. _j u 



z 
troo 

OH-O-JH 
I< J_JC0 

Z 



ynz 
<oo 
o z 



********** oo <*«Jocco>ococ\jc>o<tir>«_vo.-.ONOroo 
to — no n oo <* ro — — <» •* oo *o o «-« <* cm <t ■& c\j 



C\J 



00 



**#******»coooLnovO(>nuocj--<oj^scjKo<tvO(j' , CN 



(r 



**********a>c»c\jvo-« -^cvjrj^o^rj^moj — ■* ir< -"^ f- 



******* * * * ooooooooooooooooooooo i o i o 
ooooooooooooooooooooo i o l o 

OOOOOOOoOOOOOOOOOOoOO I O I o 

ooooooooooooooooooooo 



zoi- < a a _J"->u < cd -i 



UJ 



< 

z 



******************************* 



zok <aa -J«-u< cd juj 



******************************* 



zoi- < cl a _j«-tv i qq jui 



******* ***ooooooooooooooooooooo i O I o 
ooooooooooooooooooooo i O I o 
ooooooooooooooooooooo I O I o 

ooooooooooooooooooooo 



******************************* 



******* 



***U><*<*C\J<CN~ir>N<yvOOOsO — ^ N N (\| m C\J I — I f 

w-»omrooo(\ic\jO'<rn<tNiro v '-c\j'-<'*uio i \o i n 

—.OOOOO — O^'-'OO.-'OOO.-.O — O— " I ry I o 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



r\i 



(Mro^u^vONct)^0'^(Mn<tir\i.^oo<>o--c\jrn<jif)«i;Noro > c>'- 
— ^.f — — ^^^.^-^ic\ic\j(\jf\j{\j(\jc\j(\jc\jt\jnn 



5 
D 
CO 



> 
< 



oo 
o 

ro 

Z 



o 

m 

z 



CO 

o 

m 

Z 



r. 
c 



O 



o 
r> 

o 



IT. 
O 

o 



o 

n 
C 



r 
o 
n 

o 



o 
o 

m 
o 



o 
o 

ro 

z 



o 

c 



to 

CO 

z 



« ra z 



1 1 



o 

V 

0^ 

N 
I 

IT) 
C\J 
O 

•H 
V 

a 

< 
.j 
a 



< 






a. 






o 






o 






a: 






a 






z 






o 






•— 






K 






< 


z 




a 


UJ 




k 


H 




w 


V) 




z 


h-> 




o 


a</> 




z 


OCO 




UJ 


ID 




o 


UJ</> 

a 




o 


u> 




z 


>z 




M 


J~ 


u 


J 


Ih 


(/) 


a 


H< 




o 


ZUJ 


• 


u 


CI 


UJ 




z 


J 


o 


UJ 


_J 


z 


u 


»-< 


< 


< 


> 




a 


z 


o 


w 


UJ 


z 




UJ 


w 




a. 


k 




o 


< 






UJ 




•> 


I 




vO 


cr 




K 


< 




o 


-J 




ja 


u 




N 


V) 




u- 

z • 

~> 

ct 
• < 

uz 
•-< 

Z-> 

a 

UJ •• 

ro 

HO 

Oh 

•-a 

JUJ 
WO. 

••a 

UJO 

(-a 
wcc 




_i vcoz 
w a z»-o 

10 UJt-i_l »- 
OZ>_|CD 



vtoz 
uct z»-o 

WW*-. JH 
JZ> JCD 

UJ UJ^HH 



z 
J o 

XhJmD 
3</)Lj_|»- 

< w d_j m 

OU-w 

u. z 



uDh: 



z 
o 

XUUJ.-0 
3W3 Jt- 
< JU. JCD 

UJ •-. 

z 



_l z 

<oo 

DCttO-JH 
< WD JCD 



a o 
uict 
aui 

oz 

UJ 



z 
o 
•-o 

JOD 



>• z 

aooo 

<CtUJi_D 

JUJWJt- 
OZD JCD 

2 



tru. 
<oo 
j •<»- 

octou 
wu, JO. 



e> z 

UJZOO 

<HO_jl- 
0_< J JCO 
C/)UJ t- 

I z 



5-U.Z 

<oo 
o z 



#*****##*#vO<»-ooNNvo<-«a'mr*^nvoiflc\JWNvo.-.oa 
roro^rowroio^roronrorororororororororo 






ccnoificoQ^rotMcvjooromro*} <t\0^oooo 

OOOOOOCiO — OOOOoOOOO-<0^- 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 



**********#***»******#********* 



#*******###«.****tt****#*##***##* 



zoh < o. a j.-u<co_iuj 



#***##*#*******#*■*#****#*##**** 



#**'«-#-»f-j»-***sc^\D' r ) NO^vOif)'<i-*c\jn^o-<ojoovon 
cu ro o -• r, c\j.-.o-tf<\Jo»-'<\ic\j'- < oj(\j-«focvj(\j 
ooooooooooooooooooooo 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 



incvjoroiT'iH'-' — NoooJ(\j^ic\j(\i^ro\o<tvo 
ooooooooooooooooooooo 



ooooooooooooooooooooo 



******** tt*##*******#****#*#*#*# 



########*#########***#***#*#### 



'Cvjn^u , )*ON.ooa>o-icviro<Mf)»oNoooo^wrO'*invONooOo^i 



ro 



CM 
O 



o 



CM 

m 

o 



z i o 
3 I > 



o 

<r 

z 



o 



in 



c 



o 



o 

o 



ro 
o 

<»• 
u 



o 
o 

o 



o 
o 

z 



CJ 

o 

o 



CO 

z 



< 

o 

• w 

< J 

t- CO 

< < 

a u 

i— < 

UJ J 

j • a 
co<a 

j< 

< O 

> JZ 

<_l 

ZDW 
DZW 

i/iwo 

UJUIZ 
HHUJ 
OOO 
•ZT 
UIUJ • 

oo< 
* raz 



12 



o 
s 

& 

N 

I 

in 
c\j 
o 

N 

a: 
< 
i 
o 
in 



SE 






< 






a 






V 






o 






a 






a 






z 






G 






»-• 






H 






< 






a 


> 




h 


IX 




w 


< 




7 


KJ 




O 


as 




2 


OD 




LU 


am 




O 


UJ 

a_i 




e> 


< 




z 


>y- 




»-i 


Jz 


u 


j 


iw 


W 


u 


i-j 




u 


zz 


» 


u 


oo 


UJ 




za 


J 


o 


►•« 


_l 


z 


> 


►-• 


< 


z 


> 




UJ 


z 


o 




UJ 


z 




UJ 


»•* 




or 


K 




o 


< 






UJ 




•» 


I 




»0 


a 




K 


< 




C 


d 




J0< 


V) 




.0* 

z": 

a 
• < 

uz 
»-< 

or 

TO 
►-G 

o- 
»-a 

_IUJ 

uja 

i 

• •a 

UIO 
HO. 

»-"UJ 



o 

OUJ 
ZU.I 



z 




o 


w 


O.- 


UJ 


zt- 


UJ 


HU 


a 


^UJ 


o 


a 


Ul 


>-> 


o 



a 



UJ> 


k 


>H 


z 


•-« t-t 


UJ 


»-o 


u 


<>-> 


a 


JJ 


UJ 


UJD 


a 


a i 





WH u. 
2ZQ- 
•-"UJ 2 
K i-UJ O 
>CDKUJ 
<2 O 

o< 



UJ 

a. 

Zh 
UJ< 

►-a 

CDUJ 

so 

< 5! 

UJ 



IS 

UJ 
Q 



Z 
UJQ 
(/)»-< 

U--J 

~o 

z 



a 

10 

\ 

3 
h 

m 



z 

u »~ 

•- u. 



«f < 

»- _! 
GO 

h in 

z 



T 
V H 
<fll-Z 

ooo 

z 



zoh < an _i«u< m_JUJ 



z o i- < a o _i>-u< cd_juj 



in 



zoi- <a a _j«-u< cc _iw 



< 

z 



♦ *^***#***<;r r )CJvOO > o<Damncj^r r )vD^ocvjvo<ocoi 
<tn<J-<f r Xvcinnfn<f<t' < tro < *uo-*'*>*ir^ I 



♦ ♦***##*##vo-tfoc*Nvo-*o^fnncFrQ»om<\jmN , <Jo' ( £>o* 
r; n> <* d w n U' <t ro n ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro 



ro 



ro 



ZQl- <aO_l~U<CD_IUJ 



z 



< 

o 



< 
o 

UJ 

_l 
c 
< 



HlOo^Or-^<}J^(\J(Mr)0(IlOM^oul<>o , ^^ 
ro -* vo cr- co in »r> c\j (OoomOo^NWoaco 
n —. .-< ^-i f-i ^. —•_•.-..-< t-< cj «-«•-• cv. 



o 

«1 



in 
o 

in 



o 
o 

o 



-<(\in<tu"i>Oi^cn0^o-<cvjr r )<tin»CNQDO > o — (\Jrn < tir'vONco<7 , o«-' 
r* r-> -* *+ -. ~ * ~+ „+ — t\joj(\jf\jrjcjrvjcjrvjcjnn 



3 
in 



(9 

> 
< 



o 



m 

£0 

Z 



u. J 
_i »a 
cd < a 
<h < 
-j< 

►-Oh 
< G 

>JZ 
<_l 
ZDiO 
OZUJ 

inmc 

H h UJ 

ooo 
zz 

UJUJ • 

or < 
#uz 



13 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

illinium 

3 1262 09052 5808